Anesthetics are medicines that cause loss of feeling or consciousness.
Pre-contact doctors used anesthetics for bone fractures, gout and rheumatism. American Indians used them for surgery as early as 100 BC. Some of the anesthetics used by Indian doctors are coca, peyote and datura - Jimson weed.
Cocoa was used both as an internal and external medicine. The Inca used cocoa as an external medicine in the form of a poultice. To use coca as an internal medicine, Inca doctors had their patients eat coca before surgery. Whites did not discover the anesthetic property of cocoa until 1884. Soon after, cocoa became popular with doctors.
The Aztec used peyote long before contact. A lotion was made of the peyote root for sore feet and headaches. Peyote can reduce fever if taken internally. Indians also used to ease the pain of open wounds, snakebites and broken bones with peyote. US Army doctors used peyote as a painkiller until 1800.
Indians in Virginia used Jimson weed. Prior to the 1800s, non-Indian doctors did not have good anesthetics. European doctors before 1847 used high does of opium or alcohol. Sometimes this killed the patient.
Folks, please don't do this at home.
These Indian doctors were highly trained specialists. They did not prescribe medicine until they were in their 30s.
Apple Pan Dowdy
Grease the bottom of a baking dish. Cover it with left over biscuits. Cover the biscuits with a thick layer of apples. Sprinkle heavily with sugar, cinnamon and some nutmeg. Add more crumbled up biscuits, some butter and a little water. Put in an oven and bake at 350 degrees until done.